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Kronstadt

 

Kronstadt City of Kronstadt - "gate" of St. Petersburg and its western outpost, a unique walled city, one of the most powerful and famous citadels in Europe.
The city is located on the eastern tip of the island of Kotlin in 27 km from the mouth of the Neva River. Prior to 1996, was closed to tourists, as was the base of the Navy. Here, the S1984 is a 15-kilometer long land route along the dike that protects the city from flooding. The history goes back to the fall of Kronstadt in 1703, when by order of Peter I on the sandbar Gulf of Finland, south of the island Kotlin Kronshlot fort was built (German Kronenschloss - crown lock), blocked for enemy ships fairway in front of the mouth of the Neva River.
Construction of the fort was under the supervision of Peter I and AD Menshikov and leadership invited fortifier D.Trezini. May 7, 1704 a set of powerful fortifications came into operation. After a month coming up to Kronshlot Swedes were forced to retreat under heavy fire his guns.
The first years of construction on the island Kotlin (distance from west to east 10 km, from south to north - up to 2 km, the area of ​​16 sq. km.) Information is very stingy all documents relating to this building - as well as the documents of the first years of construction St. Petersburg - were in the archives of Prince Menshikov. December 22, 1716 invaluable archive burned. We only know that one of the first buildings on Kotlin was church, dedicated in June 1706. Perhaps it was the church of the garrison regiment stood on the site of the cathedral. At the same time, is believed to be on the island was made the first home of Peter I. Evidence of contemporaries, it also follows that in 1712, Peter shared his plans to build a model city on Kotlin. Extensive work on civil construction stone unfolded in 1714. Getting them to put the decree of Peter I, according to which the Russian provinces were instructed to finance construction on Kotlin stone houses. The result was the creation of the perfect urban ensemble - calibrated, concise, extremely rational. And at the same time beautiful - thanks to numerous parks, monuments and temples. In May 1720, Peter I issued another historic decree: "The defense of the fleet and to have this place to the latest strength and stomach, like a overriding cause." Then on Kotlin than civil, military construction unfolded.
Fortifications
In October 1723 Peter I founded the fortress on Kotlin, calling it Kronstadt (German Kronenstadt-crown city). The plan, drawn up by himself, intended to create an ensemble, herpes shipbuilding complex channel system (Petrovsky dock).
Further development of Kronstadt and its fortifications made the island the beginning of the Crimean War (1853-1856) as the strongest naval fortress in Europe. During the Crimean war, the British fleet was forced to retreat at the sight of the Kronstadt forts. After another half-century modernized powerful fortresses and forts of Kronstadt included 17 artificial islands and reinforced panels on the northern and southern shores of the Gulf. Their scale hit so far. These fortifications enabled in 1941-1944 to defend the city and did not allow the Germans to take Oranienbaum bridgehead. The guns of Kronstadt inflict massive damage and maintain the operation of the Army.
Peter's marina and Peter Park
Peter's wharf (originally Kotlin harbor) was built during the reign of Peter I - immediately after the victory at Poltava (1709). Why seabed was significantly deepened, strengthened quay wall tree on stilts. When Catherine II work on the construction of granite coast, completed in the second half of the XIX century.
By the pier adjacent small regular Petrovsky park, developed on the site of the Arsenal area of ​​the second half of XVIII century. The park was laid by Admiral FF Bellingshausen, who in 1839 became the head of the port of Kronstadt. In 1841, in the middle of the park was a monument to Peter the Great (sculptor T.Zhak). Peter, trampling enemy's sword banner, presented in a uniform, where he participated in the Battle of Poltava.
Peter dock
Peter dock (main channel length of 300 m, width 20 m, depth 12 m) - superb hydraulic structure, Russia's first dry dock. Was founded in 1719 by Peter I, which read: "start channel near the cathedral church of St. Andrew the First-Called from the sea shore to the docks, and docks, and also decorate the side of the canal."
Francisco de Miranda, who visited Kronstadt in 1787, wrote about the channel Petrovsky dock: "... with stone cladding, at some distance from each other are sluice gates to be able to use that part of it is needed, and the small underground channels constantly replenish with water. It can simultaneously build 13 ships and five more to recover ... I daresay, the few facilities in the world embody so noble and grand idea, the first time the amazing imagination ... "He also mentioned two wooden obelisk" that says, is that the water here was first commissioned in 1752, while reign, and in the presence of the Empress Elizabeth, Peter A channel spanned only in Kronstadt drawbridge. Serving on the Gulf of Finland is part of the proof of alignment lighthouse is one of the oldest in Kronstadt.
Nikolsky Cathedral
Massive, a height of 70 m, with a huge dome with a diameter of 27 m, the cathedral was built between 1902 and 1913 on the highest point of Kronstadt on the project director of the Institute of Civil Engineers V. Kosyakova. V1913 was in the square before the cathedral was opened designed monument sculptor L. Sherwood, Vice Admiral SO Makarov - the largest naval commander, oceanography, shipbuilder.
Vladimir Cathedral
The temple was built in 1875-1879 under the project of X. Greyfana. Devoted to the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God. Was the main regimental council Kronstadt Fortress.
Kronstadt tide gauge
The beginning of it label embossed on the initiative of Vice-Admiral MF Reynard on the abutment of the bridge over Obvodny channel and indicates the average level of the Baltic Sea during the 1825-1840 years. Later next was fortified foot rule - a device for measuring the level of the sea. His statements are the basis of the leveling system in Russia.